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Full Risk Disclosures
Futures Risk Disclosure
The following statement is furnished pursuant to Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) Regulation 1.55(c).This brief statement does not disclose all of the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures, forex and options. In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk. Trading in futures, forex and options is not suitable for many members of the public. You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources and other relevant circumstances.
The risk of loss in trading commodity futures contracts and foreign currency can be substantial. You should, therefore, carefully consider whether such trading is suitable for you in light of your circumstances and financial resources. You should be aware of the following points:
- You may sustain a total loss of the funds that you deposit with your broker to establish or maintain a position in the commodity futures market or foreign exchange market, and you may incur losses beyond these amounts. If the market moves against your position, you may be called upon by your broker to deposit a substantial amount of additional margin funds, on short notice, in order to maintain your position. If you do not provide the required funds within the time required by your broker, your position may be liquidated at a loss, and you will be liable for any resulting deficit in your account.
- The funds you deposit with a futures commission merchant for trading futures and forex positions are not protected by insurance in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the futures commission merchant, or in the event your funds are misappropriated.
- The funds you deposit with a futures commission merchant for trading futures or forex positions are not protected by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation even if the futures commission merchant is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a broker or dealer.
- The funds you deposit with a futures commission merchant are generally not guaranteed or insured by a derivatives clearing organization in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the futures commission merchant, or if the futures commission merchant is otherwise unable to refund your funds. Certain derivatives clearing organizations, however, may have programs that provide limited insurance to customers. You should inquire of your futures commission merchant whether your funds will be insured by a derivatives clearing organization and you should understand the benefits and limitations of such insurance programs.
- The funds you deposit with a futures commission merchant are not held by the futures commission merchant in a separate account for your individual benefit. Futures commission merchants commingle the funds received from customers in one or more accounts and you may be exposed to losses incurred by other customers if the futures commission merchant does not have sufficient capital to cover such other customers’ trading losses.
- The funds you deposit with a futures commission merchant may be invested by the futures commission merchant in certain types of financial instruments that have been approved by the Commission for the purpose of such investments. Permitted investments are listed in Commission Regulation 1.25 and include: U.S. government securities; municipal securities; money market mutual funds; and certain corporate notes and bonds. The futures commission merchant may retain the interest and other earnings realized from its investment of customer funds. You should be familiar with the types of financial instruments that a futures commission merchant may invest customer funds in.
- Futures commission merchants are permitted to deposit customer funds with affiliated entities, such as affiliated banks, securities brokers or dealers, or foreign brokers. You should inquire as to whether your futures commission merchant deposits funds with affiliates and assess whether such deposits by the futures commission merchant with its affiliates increases the risks to your funds.
- You should consult your futures commission merchant concerning the nature of the protections available to safeguard funds or property deposited for your account.
- Under certain market conditions, you may find it difficult or impossible to liquidate a position. This can occur, for example, when the market reaches a daily price fluctuation limit (“limit move”).
- All futures, forex and options positions involve risk, and a “spread” position may not be less risky than an outright “long” or “short” position.
- The high degree of leverage (gearing) that is often obtainable in futures and forex trading because of the small margin requirements can work against you as well as for you. Leverage (gearing) can lead to large losses as well as gains.
- In addition to the risks noted in the paragraphs enumerated above, you should be familiar with the futures commission merchant you select to entrust your funds for trading futures positions. As of July 12, 2020, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission requires each futures commission merchant to make publicly available on its Web site firm specific disclosures and financial information to assist you with your assessment and selection of a futures commission merchant. Information regarding this futures commission merchant may be obtained by visiting the websites of the respective FCM partner of NinjaTrader Brokerage: Dorman Trading (www.dormantrading.com), Phillip Capital (www.phillipcapital.com), FOREX.com (www.forex.com) and Oanda (www.oanda.com). ALL OF THE POINTS NOTED ABOVE APPLY TO ALL FUTURES AND FOREX TRADING WHETHER FOREIGN OR DOMESTIC. IN ADDITION, IF YOU ARE CONTEMPLATING TRADING FOREIGN FUTURES OR OPTIONS CONTRACTS, YOU SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDITIONAL RISKS:
- Foreign futures transactions involve executing and clearing trades on a foreign exchange. This is the case even if the foreign exchange is formally “linked” to a domestic exchange, whereby a trade executed on one exchange liquidates or establishes a position on the other exchange. No domestic organization regulates the activities of a foreign exchange, including the execution, delivery, and clearing of transactions on such an exchange, and no domestic regulator has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of the foreign exchange or the laws of the foreign country. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the transaction occurs. For these reasons, customers who trade on foreign exchanges may not be afforded certain of the protections which apply to domestic transactions, including the right to use domestic alternative dispute resolution procedures. In particular, funds received from customers to margin foreign futures transactions may not be provided the same protections as funds received to margin futures transactions on domestic exchanges. Before you trade, you should familiarize yourself with the foreign rules which will apply to your particular transaction.
- Finally, you should be aware that the price of any foreign futures or option contract and, therefore, the potential profit and loss resulting therefrom, may be affected by any fluctuation in the foreign exchange rate between the time the order is placed and the foreign futures contract is liquidated or the foreign option contract is liquidated or exercised.
THIS BRIEF STATEMENT CANNOT, OF COURSE, DISCLOSE ALL THE RISKS AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE COMMODITY AND FOREIGN CURRENCY MARKETS.
Options Risk Disclosure
BECAUSE OF THE VOLATILE NATURE OF THE COMMODITIES MARKETS, THE PURCHASE AND GRANTING OF COMMODITY OPTIONS INVOLVE A HIGH DEGREE OF RISK. COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR MANY MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC. SUCH TRANSACTIONS SHOULD BE ENTERED INTO ONLY BY PERSONS WHO HAVE READ AND UNDERSTOOD THIS DISCLOSURE STATEMENT AND WHO UNDERSTAND THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF THEIR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AND OF THE RISKS INVOLVED IN THE OPTION TRANSACTIONS COVERED BY THIS DISCLOSURE STATEMENT.
BOTH THE PURCHASER AND THE GRANTOR SHOULD KNOW THAT THE OPTION IF EXERCISED, RESULTS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A FUTURES CONTRACT (AN “OPTION ON A FUTURES CONTRACT”).
BOTH THE PURCHASER AND THE GRANTOR SHOULD KNOW WHETHER THE PARTICULAR OPTION IN WHICH THEY CONTEMPLATE TRADING IS SUBJECT TO A “STOCK-STYLE” OR “FUTURES-STYLE” SYSTEM OF MARGINING. UNDER A STOCK-STYLE MARGINING SYSTEM, A PURCHASER IS REQUIRED TO PAY THE FULL PURCHASE PRICE OF THE OPTION AT THE INITIATION OF THE TRANSACTION. THE PURCHASER HAS NO FURTHER OBLIGATION ON THE OPTION POSITION. UNDER A FUTURES-STYLE MARGINING SYSTEM, THE PURCHASER DEPOSITS INITIAL MARGIN AND MAY BE REQUIRED TO DEPOSIT ADDITIONAL MARGIN IF THE MARKET MOVES AGAINST THE OPTION POSITION. THE PURCHASER’S TOTAL SETTLEMENT VARIATION MARGIN OBLIGATION OVER THE LIFE OF THE OPTION, HOWEVER, WILL NOT EXCEED THE ORIGINAL OPTION PREMIUM, ALTHOUGH SOME INDIVIDUAL PAYMENT OBLIGATIONS AND/OR RISK MARGIN REQUIREMENTS MAY AT TIMES EXCEED THE ORIGINAL OPTION PREMIUM. IF THE PURCHASER OR GRANTOR DOES NOT UNDERSTAND HOW OPTIONS ARE MARGINED UNDER A STOCK-STYLE OR FUTURES-STYLE MARGINING SYSTEM, HE OR SHE SHOULD REQUEST AN EXPLANATION FROM THE FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANT (“FCM”) OR INTRODUCING BROKER (“IB”).
A PERSON SHOULD NOT PURCHASE ANY COMMODITY OPTION UNLESS HE OR SHE IS ABLE TO SUSTAIN A TOTAL LOSS OF THE PREMIUM AND TRANSACTION COSTS OF PURCHASING THE OPTION. A PERSON SHOULD NOT GRANT ANY COMMODITY OPTION UNLESS HE OR SHE IS ABLE TO MEET ADDITIONAL CALLS FOR MARGIN WHEN THE MARKET MOVES AGAINST HIS OR HER POSITION AND, IN SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES, TO SUSTAIN A VERY LARGE FINANCIAL LOSS.
A PERSON WHO PURCHASES AN OPTION SUBJECT TO STOCK-STYLE MARGINING SHOULD BE AWARE THAT, IN ORDER TO REALIZE ANY VALUE FROM THE OPTION, IT WILL BE NECESSARY EITHER TO OFFSET THE OPTION POSITION OR TO EXERCISE THE OPTION. OPTIONS SUBJECT TO FUTURES-STYLE MARGINING ARE MARKED TO MARKET, AND GAINS AND LOSSES ARE PAID AND COLLECTED DAILY. IF AN OPTION PURCHASER DOES NOT UNDERSTAND HOW TO OFFSET OR EXERCISE AN OPTION, THE PURCHASER SHOULD REQUEST AN EXPLANATION FROM THE FCM OR IB. CUSTOMERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT IN A NUMBER OF CIRCUMSTANCES, SOME OF WHICH WILL BE DESCRIBED IN THIS DISCLOSURE STATEMENT, IT MAY BE DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE TO OFFSET AN EXISTING OPTION POSITION ON AN EXCHANGE.
THE GRANTOR OF AN OPTION SHOULD BE AWARE THAT, IN MOST CASES, A COMMODITY OPTION MAY BE EXERCISED AT ANY TIME FROM THE TIME IT IS GRANTED UNTIL IT EXPIRES. THE PURCHASER OF AN OPTION SHOULD BE AWARE THAT SOME OPTION CONTRACTS MAY PROVIDE ONLY A LIMITED PERIOD OF TIME FOR EXERCISE OF THE OPTION.
THE PURCHASER OF A PUT OR CALL SUBJECT TO STOCK-STYLE OR FUTURES-STYLE MARGINING IS SUBJECT TO THE RISK OF LOSING THE ENTIRE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE OPTION – THAT IS, THE PREMIUM CHARGED FOR THE OPTION PLUS ALL TRANSACTION COSTS.
THE COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REQUIRES THAT ALL CUSTOMERS RECEIVE AND ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT OF A COPY OF THIS DISCLOSURE STATEMENT BUT DOES NOT INTEND THIS STATEMENT AS A RECOMMENDATION OR ENDORSEMENT OF EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTIONS.
Some of the risks of option trading.
Specific market movements of the underlying future cannot be predicted accurately.
The grantor of a call option who does not have a long position in the underlying futures contract is subject to risk of loss should the price of the underlying futures contract be higher than the strike price upon exercise or expiration of the option by an amount greater than the premium received for granting the call option.
The grantor of a call option who has a long position in the underlying futures contract is subject to the full risk of a decline in price of the underlying position reduced by the premium received for granting the call. In exchange for the premium received for granting a call option, the option grantor gives up all of the potential gain resulting from an increase in the price of the underlying futures contract above the option strike price upon exercise or expiration of the option.
The grantor of a put option who does not have a short position in the underlying futures contract is subject to risk of loss should the price of the underlying futures contract decrease below the strike price upon exercise or expiration of the option by an amount in excess of the premium received for granting the put option.
The grantor of a put option on a futures contract who has a short position in the underlying futures contract is subject to the full risk of a rise in the price in the underlying position reduced by the premium received for granting the put. In exchange for the premium received for granting a put option on a futures contract, the option grantor gives up all of the potential gain resulting from a decrease in the price of the underlying futures contract below the option strike price upon exercise or expiration of the option.
Description of commodity options. Prior to entering into any transaction involving a commodity option, an individual should thoroughly understand the nature and type of option involved and the underlying futures contract. The futures commission merchant or introducing broker is required to provide, and the individual contemplating an option transaction should obtain:
- An identification of the futures contract underlying the option and which may be purchased or sold upon exercise of the option or, if applicable, whether exercise of the option will be settled in cash;
- The procedure for exercise of the option contract, including the expiration date and latest time on that date for exercise. (The latest time on an expiration date when an option may be exercised may vary; therefore, option market participants should ascertain from their futures commission merchant or their introducing broker the latest time the firm accepts exercise instructions with respect to a particular option.);
- A description of the purchase price of the option including the premium, commissions, costs, fees and other charges. (Since commissions and other charges may vary widely among futures commission merchants and among introducing brokers, option customers may find it advisable to consult more than one firm when opening an option account.);
- A description of all costs in addition to the purchase price which may be incurred if the commodity option is exercised, including the amount of commissions (whether termed sales commissions or otherwise), storage, interest, and all similar fees and charges which may be incurred;
- An explanation and understanding of the option margining system;
- A clear explanation and understanding of any clauses in the option contract and of any items included in the option contract explicitly or by reference which might affect the customer’s obligations under the contract. This would include any policy of the futures commission merchant or the introducing broker or rule of the exchange on which the option is traded that might affect the customer’s ability to fulfill the option contract or to offset the option position in a closing purchase or closing sale transaction (for example, due to unforeseen circumstances that require suspension or termination of trading); and
- If applicable, a description of the effect upon the value of the option position that could result from limit moves in the underlying futures contract.
The mechanics of option trading. Before entering into any exchange-traded option transaction, an individual should obtain a description of how commodity options are traded.
Option customers should clearly understand that there is no guarantee that option positions may be offset by either a closing purchase or closing sale transaction on an exchange. In this circumstance, option grantors could be subject to the full risk of their positions until the option position expires, and the purchaser of a profitable option might have to exercise the option to realize a profit.
For an option on a futures contract, an individual should clearly understand the relationship between exchange rules governing option transactions and exchange rules governing the underlying futures contract. For example, an individual should understand what action, if any, the exchange will take in the option market if trading in the underlying futures market is restricted or the futures prices have made a “limit move.”
The individual should understand that the option may not be subject to daily price fluctuation limits while the underlying futures may have such limits, and, as a result, normal pricing relationships between options and the underlying future may not exist when the future is trading at its price limit. Also, underlying futures positions resulting from exercise of options may not be capable of being offset if the underlying future is at a price limit.
Margin requirements. An individual should know and understand whether the option he or she is contemplating trading is subject to a stock-style or futures-style system of margining. Stock-style margining requires the purchaser to pay the full option premium at the time of purchase. The purchaser has no further financial obligations, and the risk of loss is limited to the purchase price and transaction costs. Futures-style margining requires the purchaser to pay initial margin only at the time of purchase. The option position is marked to market, and gains and losses are collected and paid daily. The purchaser’s risk of loss is limited to the initial option premium and transaction costs
An individual granting options under either a stock-style or futures-style system of margining should understand that he or she may be required to pay additional margin in the case of adverse market movements.
Profit potential of an option position. An option customer should carefully calculate the price which the underlying futures contract would have to reach for the option position to become profitable. Under a stock-style margining system, this price would include the amount by which the underlying futures contract would have to rise above or fall below the strike price to cover the sum of the premium and all other costs incurred in entering into and exercising or closing (offsetting) the commodity option position. Under a future-style margining system, option positions would be marked to market, and gains and losses would be paid and collected daily, and an option position would become profitable once the variation margin collected exceeded the cost of entering the contract position.
Also, an option customer should be aware of the risk that the futures price prevailing at the opening of the next trading day may be substantially different from the futures price which prevailed when the option was exercised.
Deep-out-of-the-money options. A person contemplating purchasing a deep-out-of-the-money option (that is, an option with a strike price significantly above, in the case of a call, or significantly below, in the case of a put, the current price of the underlying futures contract) should be aware that the chance of such an option becoming profitable is ordinarily remote.
On the other hand, a potential grantor of a deep-out-of-the-money option should be aware that such options normally provide small premiums while exposing the grantor to all of the potential losses described in section (1) of this disclosure statement.
Glossary of terms –
- Contract market. Any board of trade (exchange) located in the United States which has been designated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission to list a futures contract or commodity option for trading.
- Exchange-traded option; put option; call option. The options discussed in this disclosure statement are limited to those which may be traded on a contract market. These options (subject to certain exceptions) give an option purchaser the right to buy in the case of a call option, or to sell in the case of a put option, a futures contract underlying the option at the stated strike price prior to the expiration date of the option. Each exchange-traded option is distinguished by the underlying futures contract, strike price, expiration date, and whether the option is a put or a call.
- Underlying futures contract. The futures contract which may be purchased or sold upon the exercise of an option on a futures contract.
- Class of options. A put or a call covering the same underlying futures contract.
- Series of options. Options of the same class having the same strike price and expiration date.
- Exercise price. See strike price.
- Expiration date. The last day when an option may be exercised.
- Premium. The amount agreed upon between the purchaser and seller for the purchase or sale of a commodity option.
- Strike price. The price at which a person may purchase or sell the underlying futures contract upon exercise of a commodity option. This term has the same meaning as the term “exercise price.”
- Short option position. See opening sale transaction.
- Long option position. See opening purchase transaction.
- Types of options transactions –
- Opening purchase transaction. A transaction in which an individual purchases an option and thereby obtains a long option position.
- Opening sale transaction. A transaction in which an individual grants an option and thereby obtains a short option position.
- Closing purchase transaction. A transaction in which an individual with a short option position liquidates the position. This is accomplished by a closing purchase transaction for an option of the same series as the option previously granted. Such a transaction may be referred to as an offset transaction.
- Closing sale transaction. A transaction in which an individual with a long option position liquidates the position. This is accomplished by a closing sale transaction for an option of the same series as the option previously purchased. Such a transaction may be referred to as an offset transaction.
- Purchase price. The total actual cost paid or to be paid, directly or indirectly, by a person to acquire a commodity option. This price includes all commissions and other fees, in addition to the option premium.
- Grantor, writer, seller. An individual who sells an option. Such a person is said to have a short position.
- Purchaser. An individual who buys an option. Such a person is said to have a long position.
All investments have risks associated with them.
For example, investors in equities run the risk that the market as a whole could decline, dragging otherwise healthy stocks with it. Bond investors could see their income get chipped away by rising inflation. Both types of investors could experience a changing legal and regulatory requirement that could detrimentally impact their portfolio. Many times an investor will assume one type of risk in the effort of avoiding another. For instance, an investor may have fled the volatile market for the safety of fixed income, only to be left on the sidelines should the market experience a significant rebound.
While risk is unavoidable, it can be managed. Diversification is one powerful tool in managing risk in a portfolio; a balanced portfolio distributes the various types of risk over a basket of securities. Maintaining a relationship with a knowledgeable Advisor is another way to lessen the impact of risk; your Advisor can help you in the security selection process, and will help you monitor your portfolio’s performance.
The following list highlights various types of risk:
- Capital Risk: the risk that the investor will not fully recover his/her entire investment. Options and other speculative investments have a high degree of this type of risk, while quality short-term investments such as Treasury bills enjoy minimal capital risk.
- Selection Risk: put simply, the risk of choosing a security that will perform worse than other available securities.
- Timing Risk: the risk of buying or selling at an inopportune time, thus limiting profit or incurring a loss.
- Legislative Risk: the risk that future legislation will impact today’s investment decisions. Federal, state and local laws or regulations may change without notice, possibly impacting a security’s performance.
- Liquidity Risk: the risk that, should the quality or desire of a particular investment decrease, the holder will have a difficult time selling.
- Market Risk: the risk that the value of a security will decline due to overall market conditions, not by any fault of the issuing company.
- Credit Risk: the risk that the issuer may become unable to pay interest and/or principal when due on fixed income securities. U.S. Government securities are the least likely to default on payments, while “junk” bonds have a high degree of credit risk.
- Inflationary Risk: the risk that inflation will reduce the purchasing power of a dollar over time. Equity securities tend to provide the best protection against this type of risk, while bonds are more susceptible due to their fixed income and possible long-term exposure to rises in inflation.
- Interest Rate Risk: the risk that, as interest rates rise, a bond investor’s holdings will decline as more attractive offerings enter the market. The longer the maturity on the bond, the greater the risk. Some stocks are susceptible to this type of risk as well (companies that borrow for financing operations will see less profit should the cost of borrowing increase; this will decrease their stock price).
- Reinvestment Risk: the risk that a bondholder will be unable to reinvest interest payments at a rate equaling the yield-to-maturity. Zero-coupon bonds do not have this type of risk.
- Call Risk: the risk that a bondholder will have their bonds called away by the issuer if the prevailing interest rates decrease below what their bond is paying. The bondholder would then have to invest in bonds that do not pay as much interest.
Your Investment Center representative can work with you to determine how much risk your financial situation and goals can tolerate.
1420 Route 206 North Suite 210
Bedminster, NJ 07921
This brief statement does not disclose all of the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures and options. In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk. Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public. You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources and other relevant circumstances.
This material is conveyed as a solicitation for entering into a derivatives transaction.
This material has been prepared by a Daniels Trading broker who provides research market commentary and trade recommendations as part of his or her solicitation for accounts and solicitation for trades; however, Daniels Trading does not maintain a research department as defined in CFTC Rule 1.71. Daniels Trading, its principals, brokers and employees may trade in derivatives for their own accounts or for the accounts of others. Due to various factors (such as risk tolerance, margin requirements, trading objectives, short term vs. long term strategies, technical vs. fundamental market analysis, and other factors) such trading may result in the initiation or liquidation of positions that are different from or contrary to the opinions and recommendations contained therein.
Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future performance. The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or commodity options can be substantial, and therefore investors should understand the risks involved in taking leveraged positions and must assume responsibility for the risks associated with such investments and for their results.
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Trade recommendations and profit/loss calculations may not include commissions and fees. Please consult your broker for details based on your trading arrangement and commission setup.
You should carefully consider whether such trading is suitable for you in light of your circumstances and financial resources. You should read the “risk disclosure” webpage accessed at www.DanielsTrading.com at the bottom of the homepage. Daniels Trading is not affiliated with nor does it endorse any third-party trading system, newsletter or other similar service. Daniels Trading does not guarantee or verify any performance claims made by such systems or service.
Effect of “Leverage” or “Gearing”
Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk. The amount of Initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract so that transactions are ‘leveraged’ or ‘geared’. A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.
Risk-reducing orders or strategies
The placing of certain orders (e.g., “stop-loss” orders, where permitted under local law, or “stop-limit” orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it Impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as “spread” and “straddle” positions, may be as risky as taking simple “long” or “short” positions.
Variable degree of risk
Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk. Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarize themselves with the type of option (i.e., put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks. You should calculate the extent to which the value of the options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs. The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire. The exercise of an option results either in a cash settlement or in the purchaser acquiring or delivering the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the purchaser will acquire a futures position with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment which will consist of the option premium plus transaction costs. If you are contemplating purchasing deep-out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of such options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote. Selling (“writing” or “granting”) an option generally entails considerably greater risk then purchasing options. Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount. The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavorably. The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller will be obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the seller will acquire a position in a future with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the option is “covered” by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a future or another option, the risk may be reduced. If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited. Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of the premium. The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs. When the option is exercised or expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time. Additional commissions may apply when trading naked short options.
A spread is defined as the sale of one or more futures or option contracts and the purchase of one or more offsetting futures or option contracts. It should be recognized, though, that the loss from a spread can be as great as – or even greater than – that which might be incurred in having an outright futures or options position. An adverse widening or narrowing of the spread during a particular time period may exceed the change in the overall level of futures or option prices, and it is possible to experience losses on both of the futures or options contracts involved (that is, on both legs of the spread). In addition, spread trading increases transaction costs because the customers will be charged commissions on each leg of the spread.
This website may make certain references to the use of stop orders as means of limiting losses or protecting profits. Please note that there is no guarantee that any stop loss order will be executed at the stop price. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that placing a stop order will limit losses or protect profits. Accordingly, no representation is being made that the trading in customers’ accounts will be profitable or will not result in losses as the result of placing stop orders.
Authorization for Trades by Text
Orders transmitted via text messaging are taken on a “not held” basis. Customer’s text message is not a valid, executable order until DT confirms the trade and Customer affirmatively acknowledges acceptance of the trade. If Customer does not receive a prompt response from DT concerning the text message submission, it is the Customer’s affirmative obligation to contact DT immediately. DT assumes no responsibility for orders placed by text messaging. All texts sent to Customer from DT will be replied to by Customer only. DT is not responsible for text replies or trade instructions sent by any other individuals from Customers phone or any other phone number other than the phone number associated with Customer’s account. There may be slippage in order execution between the time Customer texts a message and DT executes the order. Customer must check its trading statements for accuracy immediately upon receipt thereof. Any discrepancies or issues must be reported immediately to DT. Mobile phone carrier message and data rates may apply and are the sole responsibility of Customer.
Additional risks common to futures and options
Terms and conditions of contracts
You should ask the firm with which you deal about the terms and conditions of the specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations (e.g., the circumstances under which you may become obligated to make or take delivery of the underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of options, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise). Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.
Suspension or restriction of trading and pricing relationships
“Market” conditions (e.g., illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets (e.g., the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or “circuit breakers”) may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions. If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.
Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the future, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist. This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not. The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge “fair” value.
Deposited cash and property
You should familiarize yourself with the protections afforded money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy. The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specified legislation of local rules. In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purposes of distribution in the event of a shortfall. Customer funds are not protected by insurance in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the FCM, or if customer funds are misappropriated. Customer funds are not protected by SIPC, even if the FCM is a Broker Dealer registered with the SEC. Customer funds are not insured by a Derivatives Clearing Organization (DCO) in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the FCM holding the customer funds. Each customer’s funds are not held in an individual segregated account by an FCM, but rather are commingled in one or more accounts. FCMs may invest funds deposited by customers in investments listed in CFTC Regulation 1.25. Funds deposited by customers may be deposited with affiliated entities of the FCM, including affiliated banks and brokers.
Commission and other charges
Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss. Additional commissions may apply when trading naked short options.
Liquidation Fee (GAIN Accounts Only)
If the Equity to Margin ratio (NLV/Initial Margin) in your account drops below 5% or $500.00, whichever comes first, Daniels Trading reserves the right to liquidate open positions. In the event that the positions in your account are required to be liquidated by your broker due to inaction on your part, Daniels Trading will charge a $50 per contract liquidation fee. You are responsible for monitoring your positions and are financially responsible for any losses generated by open positions.
Daniels Trading reserves the right to charge a monthly inactivity fee to all customer accounts that have not traded or held positions in the prior three months. Exceptions to this fee will be accounts that are designated as hedge accounts or accounts that are related to other accounts that have traded or held positions during the same three month period. Please note that this may be in addition to an inactivity fee charged by the Futures Commission Merchant that carries your account.
Transactions in other jurisdictions
Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before you trade you should enquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask the firm with which you deal for details about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.
The profit or loss in transactions In foreign currency-denominated contracts (whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.
Most open-outcry and electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order-routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades. As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure. Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or member firms. Such limits may vary: you should ask the firm with which you deal for details in this respect.
Trading on an electronic trading system may differ not only from trading in an open-outcry market but also from trading on other electronic trading systems. If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software. The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.
In some jurisdictions, and only then In restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions. The firm with which you deal may be acting as your counter-party to the transaction. It may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a fair price or to assess the exposure to risk. For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks. Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime. Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarize yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.
The growth of the virtual currency market has received a lot of interest and attention. Due to their nature and the risk of loss that could arise from trading these products, the CFTC and NFA have published Investor and Customer Advisory Notices on the subject. We encourage you to read these notices.
Tips & Strategies
Is the Coronavirus Causing a Global Recession?
Traditional financial theory suggests that a recession is two consecutive quarters of negative growth in a nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). The underpinnings of these types of economic downturns vary. Typically, a recession is attributed to commodity pricing instability, market crashes, inflation, or extraordinary events.
Will FED Rate Cuts Minimize Coronavirus Fallout?
In the modern era, the global credit crunch of 2008 is the standard for financial crises. A product of toxic asset securitization and subprime mortgage lending, 2008 brought to light severe shortcomings in the world’s monetary system. Twelve years later, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has once again forced the hand of the U.S. Federal Reserve… Read more.
Using Futures to Capitalize on Opportunities During the Coronavirus Pandemic Panic
The 2020 outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has driven unprecedented participation in the global financial markets. Heavy daily traded volumes and extreme pricing volatility have become new norms. Although the risk profile is greatly enhanced, active traders are privy to rare opportunities.
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